About this Session

In this session you will learn about the following observational research designs in the context of early work to understand the emergence of AIDS:

  • case report/series
  • case-control
  • cross-sectional
  • cohort

Most papers are short. Start with the chapter on Box and then read in the order presented. You should read/skim with two objectives: (i) understand the basic research designs and (ii) appreciate how our knowledge of HIV and AIDS was incremental. Even in the longer papers, keep focused on the design details.

Preparing for Class

  • COMBINED PDF (excluding STROBE)
  • Epidemiology: Beyond the Basics, CH 1.4
  • First case report/series: Centers for Disease Control (CDC. (1981). Pneumocystis pneumonia–Los Angeles. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 30(21).
  • First peer-reviewed case report/series: Hymes, K., Greene, J., Marcus, A., William, D., Cheung, T., Prose, N., … & Laubenstein, L. (1981). Kaposi’s sarcoma in homosexual men—a report of eight cases. The Lancet, 318(8247), 598-600. Published 4 months after the first MMWR.
  • First case-control study in the US: Rogers, M. F., Morens, D. M., Stewart, J. A., Kaminski, R. M., Spira, T. J., Feorino, P. M., … & Kaufman, L. (1983). National case-control study of Kaposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in homosexual men: Part 2, laboratory results. Annals of Internal Medicine, 99(2), 151-158.
  • First case report/series about AIDS among Black Africans “with no history of homosexuality or drug abuse”: Clumeck, N., Mascart-Lemone, F., De Maubeuge, J., Brenez, D., & Marcelis, L. (1983). Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in black Africans. The Lancet, 321(8325), 642.
  • Case-control study describing the detection and iso­lation of HTLV-III: Gallo, R. C., Salahuddin, S. Z., Popovic, M., Shearer, G. M., Kaplan, M., Haynes, B. F., … & White, G. (1984). Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science, 224(4648), 500-503. (get from Duke Library database)
  • First case-control study in Africa: Piot, P., Taelman, H., Minlangu, K. B., Mbendi, N., Ndangi, K., Kalambayi, K., … & Mazebo, P. (1984). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a heterosexual population in Zaire. The Lancet, 324(8394), 65-69.
  • First peer-reviewed cohort study: Jaffe, H. W., Darrow, W. W., Echenberg, D. F., O’malley, P. M., Getchell, J. P., Kalyanaraman, V. S., … & Francis, D. P. (1985). The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a cohort of homosexual men. Ann Intern Med, 103, 210-214.
  • First AIDS Surveillance System in Africa: Mann, J. M., Francis, H., Quinn, T., Asila, P. K., Bosenge, N., Nzilambi, N., … & McCormick, J. (1986). Surveillance for AIDS in a central African city: Kinshasa, Zaire. JAMA, 255(23), 3255-3259.
  • First country-specific estimates of HIV infection: Burton, A. H., & Mertens, T. E. (1998). Provisional country estimates of prevalent adult human immunodeficiency virus infections as of end 1994: a description of the methods. International Journal of Epidemiology, 27(1), 101-107.
  • First national HIV prevalence surveys: Garcia-Calleja, J. M., Gouws, E., & Ghys, P. D. (2006). National population based HIV prevalence surveys in sub-Saharan Africa: results and implications for HIV and AIDS estimates. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 82(suppl 3), iii64-iii70.
  • Review the application activity that we will complete in class
  • Pre-class readiness assessment


Posted here after class

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